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Key Things to Know

  Journal Entry:  format used to record and summarize transactions of the company
            Debits are written on top
            Credits are written on bottom, slightly to the right
            Total debits must equal total credits  (top must equal bottom)
            Each journal entry has at least one debit and at least one credit
                        Examples of journal entries:
                                    Cash                                      $100,000
                                                Common Stock                     $100,000
                                    Furniture                               $10,000
                                                Cash                                      $10,000
                                    Equipment                            $30,000
                                                Cash                                      $18,000
                                                Notes Payable                        $12,000
            Debit has no meaning except that it goes on top in a journal entry and on the
               left in a T account.
            Credit has no meaning except that it goes on the bottom in a journal entry and
               on the right in a T account
Transaction Refresher:  (see the two sections on recording on a spreadsheet
                                             if you need more help with this)
All company transactions fall into one of the following categories:
          Related to the balance sheet only – assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity
            1)  Receive cash from investors or pay dividends to investors
            2)  Trade an asset for another asset (or buy an asset and pay cash)
            3)  Buy an asset and incur a liability – you will pay later
            4)  Pay cash to reduce what is owed – reduce a liability
            Related to the income statement – revenues and expenses
               When you record a revenue you also must record an increase to asset
               When you record an expense you also must record an increase to a
                   liability or a decrease to an asset.
            1)  Provide goods or services (revenue +) and receive cash now (cash +)
            2)  Provide goods or services (revenue +) and get paid later (receivable +)
            3)  Receive a service (expense -) and pay cash now (cash -)
            4)  Receive a service (expense -) and pay cash later (payable +)
            5)  Use an asset (expense -) and asset - or accumulated depreciation -
Transactions can be summarized this way
       1) You get something (asset) and you give up something to get it                            
                (an asset or a liability)
       2)  You provide goods or services in exchange for an asset
       3)  You are provided services (expense) that you pay for now or will pay for later
       4)  You use an asset in your day to day business to get revenues (expense)
                        There are always at least two things changing for each transaction
Each asset, liability, owner’s equity, revenue and expense account gets a “T” account.
   It is called a “T” account because you draw a T first.
       Debit is always on the left
       Credit is always on the right

Debit   Credit

For each type of account, whether it is a debit or a credit depends on if it is increasing or decreasing.  Follow the chart below.
Owner's Equity
      Assets & Expenses    ---   Increases are debits
                                              Decreased are credits
      Liabilities, Owner’s Equity, Revenues ---  Increases are credits
                                                                       Decreases are debits
  First -- decide what account is being affected and what type of account it is
  Second -- decide if that account is increasing or decreasing
  Third – use the previous guidelines to determine if the change is a debit or a credit
Write the journal entry to show the accounts that are changing:
                        Debit account name                              $XXX
                                    Credit account name                       $XXX
Balancing “T” accounts:
Make a “T” account for each account name used – one “T” account for each account
The “T” account is used to summarize the account and determine the balance
  Take the amounts in the journal entries and put them in the “T” accounts
            1)  Put the debits on the left
            2)  Put the credits on the right
            3)  Add up all the debits, the left side
            4)  Add up all the credits, the right side
            5)  Take the largest number less the smallest number and put the difference
                   on the largest side
Assets and Expenses -  will always have a debit balance
Liabilities/Owner’s Equity/Revenues – will always have a credit balance




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